A US Federal census has been taken every 10 years since 1790.
1790 census information: name of each head of household, number of males, number of females, number of slaves.
1800-1840 Census information: Name of each head of household. Males and females are listed separately in age categories.
1850-1870 census information: names of all household members, sex, age, state or country of birth, value of property.